Battles in History...

Discussion in 'Non Civil War Military History' started by 5fish, Nov 26, 2019.

  1. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    I like to bring up battles throughout history that changed the course of a war, a civilization, of mankind or relevant in history...

    I will pick the Battle of La Fobie... It was the death-nail to the Crusader states in the Levant. It will be the last time the Crusader states could put a large army in the field along with ending their offensive abilities as well. We all know the Battle of Hattin this battle really was the Crusaders Gettysburg marking their pick and the beginning of their decline. The battle of La Fobie left them open to being push into the sea which happens 50 or fewer years after the battle, in 1291 with the Siege of Acre by the Mamluks.

    The Battle of LaFobie...

    LINK:
    Battle of La Forbie - Wikipedia

    The Battle of La Forbie, also known as the Battle of Hiribya, was fought October 17, 1244 – October 18, 1244 between the allied armies (drawn from the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the crusading orders, the breakaway Ayyubids of Damascus, Homs and Kerak) and the Egyptian army of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub, reinforced with Khwarezmian mercenaries.


    Snip... the battle two days

    Battle was joined on the morning October 17, with the Christian knights repeatedly charging the Egyptians and fighting up and down the line. The Egyptian army held its ground. On the morning of October 18, Baibars renewed the fight and threw the Khwarezmians against the Damascene troops in the center of the allied line. The center was shattered by their furious attack, after which they turned on the allied left and cut the Bedouin to pieces. The Emir's cavalry held stubbornly, but they were nearly annihilated; Al-Mansur finally rode from the field with 280 survivors, all that remained of his troops.

    Threatened by the Egyptians in front and the Khwarezmians on their flank, the Crusaders charged the Mamluks facing them and were initially successful, pushing them back and causing Baibars some concern. Their assault gradually lost momentum as the Khwarezmid tribesmen attacked the rear and the flanks of the Christian forces, which were defended by disorganized infantry. The well-armed knights fought on doggedly and it took several hours for their resistance to collapse.[3]

    Over 5,000 Crusaders died. 800 prisoners were taken, including Walter of Brienne, William of Chastelneuf, Master of the Hospital, and the Constable of Tripoli. Of the troops of the knightly orders, only 33 Templars, 27 Hospitallers and three Teutonic Knights survived; Philip of Montfort and the Patriarch of Jerusalem Robert of Nantes also escaped to Ascalon. However, Armand de Périgord, the Master of the Temple, the Marshal of the Temple, the archbishop of Tyre, the bishop of Lydda and Ramla (St. George), and John and William, sons of Bohemond, Lord of Botron, were all killed.

    Snip...

    Pope Innocent IV at the First Council of Lyon in 1245 called for a new Crusade, the seventh, but the Franks were never again to muster major power in the Holy Land. The Kingdom of Jerusalem suffered worst in the aftermath of La Forbie. It had not been able to put so large an army into the field since the Battle of Hattin, and would never be able to undertake offensive operations again. It brought no lasting success to the Ayyubids; the Khwarezmians were defeated outside Homs by Al-Mansur Ibrahim in 1246 after falling out with the Egyptians. Baibars (not to be confused with Al-Zahir Baibars who became a sultan), joined the Khwarezmians and was later arrested by as-Salih Ayyub and died in prison.

    While the Battle of Hattin holds great symbolic importance as having led to the fall of Jerusalem, it was La Forbie that truly marked the collapse of Christian power in Outremer.
     
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  2. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Here is another account of the battle...

    Link to the battle with much more detail than I have snipped in... http://www.burnpit.us/2012/10/battl...-turkic-allies-defeat-crusaders-syrian-allies

    Battle of La Forbie

    The next morning both armies arose early and began forming their battle lines. The Franks and Syrians arranged themselves in their tradition three divisions, or "battles." The Christian troops – including the Military Orders – lined up on the right flank, with the spearmen and crossbowmen in the front. The Damascene troops and the men from Homs comprised the center, and the Bedouins of Kerak took their place on the left flank. The Egyptians initially lined up opposite the Damascene center, while the Khwarezmians faced the Christian right and the Bedouin left.

    However, things changed quickly. Possibly without orders, the Central Asian horsemen en masse charged the Damascene center. After initial contact, the Khwarezmians began surrounding the Syrian horsemen, smelling blood like wolves after a wounded animal. Seeing they were almost completely boxed in, al-Mansur ordered his Syrians to retreat, cutting their way out after hard fighting. One historian claims al-Mansur returned to Damascus with less than 300 survivors. At this point, seeing the Syrians surrounded and being cut to pieces, the Bedouins fled the field virtually without striking a blow.

    Meanwhile, the Franks launched their own attack on the Egyptians. Despite the massive shock of the blows of the Christian knights, the Egyptian mamluks held their ground, pinning the Christians in place. By this point, perhaps two hours had passed since the initial charge of the Khwarezmians. Consequently, with both the Syrian Muslims and the Bedouins retreating, the Franks were isolated. The Central Asian cavalrymen then fell on the left flank and rear of the Latin soldiers, which were defended by the now-disordered Christian infantry. The battle lasted another five hours, with the Christians either dying or being captured by the Muslims. Most of the members of the Military Orders fought to the last (more on that below). By late afternoon, the battle of La Forbie had ended.

    Snip the end...

    Aftermath

    According to contemporary accounts, over 5000 Franks and 2500 Syrians died in the battle. The three Military Orders sustained catastrophic casualties: only 33 Templars, 27 Hospitallers, and 3 Teutonic Knights survived, fleeing to the fortified city of Ascalon. About 800 Franks were taken prisoner, including the Master of the Hospital and possibly the Master of the Temple, Armand de Périgord. The Egyptian casualties are not recorded.

    Footnote #1: After the defeat of the Franks at La Forbie, the Kingdom of Jerusalem was never again able to muster a military force so large to resist the Muslim forces arrayed against it. The final decline of the Crusader kingdoms of the Near East can be directly traced to this defeat.

    Footnote #2: Most notable of all the prisoners was Walter of Brienne, the Count of Jaffa and Ascalon. Shortly after the battle, Walter was taken by the Khwarezmians to Jaffa. Its fortifications were too strong to be breached by the Central Asian horsemen. Therefore, they threatened to hang Count Walter unless the defenders surrendered. As he was further tortured as the invaders awaited a response, Walter shouted to his soldiers not to capitulate. Eventually, the Khwarezmians tired of their sport, left Jaffa, and handed their prisoner over to the Egyptians. According to one historian, Walter of Brienne was imprisoned by the Egyptians and died some time afterwards, killed by an Egyptian emir over a game of chess.

    Footnote #3: The marriage of convenience between the Egyptians and the Khwarezmians was short-lived. Some of the Central Asians remained in Egypt as mamluks, while others left and migrated toward Syria. In 1246 the Khwarezmians blockaded Damascus, and were shortly afterward defeated by al-Mansur and his troops.

    Footnote #4: A very fine fictional account of the battle of La Forbie can be found in a short story written in 1932 by Robert E. Howard – creator of Conan the Barbarian – entitled "The Sowers of the Thunder." It can be found online at http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Sowers_of_Thunder .



     
  3. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    The 2nd siege of Constantinople in 717-718AD marks the furthest expansion of the Arab Caliphate in the east like the Battle of Tours in the West in 732AD marks the end of Arab expansion in the west. It marks the first use of Greek Fire by the Byzantine in Naval warfare.

    Siege of Constantinople (717–718) - Wikipedia

    The Second Arab siege of Constantinople in 717–718 was a combined land and sea offensive by the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate against the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople. The campaign marked the culmination of twenty years of attacks and progressive Arab occupation of the Byzantine borderlands, while Byzantine strength was sapped by prolonged internal turmoil. In 716, after years of preparations, the Arabs, led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, invaded Byzantine Asia Minor. The Arabs initially hoped to exploit Byzantine civil strife and made common cause with the general Leo III the Isaurian, who had risen up against Emperor Theodosius III. Leo, however, tricked them and secured the Byzantine throne for himself.


    Snip...

    The Battle of Tours (10 October 732),[8] also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Highway of the Martyrs (Arabic: معركة بلاط الشهداء‎, romanized: Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā'),[9] was an important victory of the Frankish and Burgundian[10][11] forces under Charles Martel over the raiding parties of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.

    Snip...

    The expedition's failure weakened the Umayyad state. As historian Bernard Lewis commented, "Its failure brought a grave moment for Umayyad power. The financial strain of equipping and maintaining the expedition caused an aggravation of the fiscal and financial oppression which had already aroused such dangerous opposition. The destruction of the fleet and army of Syria at the sea walls of Constantinople deprived the regime of the chief material basis of its power".[44] The blow to the Caliphate's might was severe, and although the land army did not suffer losses in the same degree as the fleet, Umar is recorded as contemplating withdrawing from the recent conquests of Hispania and Transoxiana, as well as a complete evacuation of Cilicia and other Byzantine territories that the Arabs had seized over the previous years. Although his advisors dissuaded him from such drastic actions, most Arab garrisons were withdrawn from the Byzantine frontier districts they had occupied in the lead-up to the siege. In Cilicia, only Mopsuestia remained in Arab hands as a defensive bulwark to protect Antioch.[45] The Byzantines even recovered some territory in western Armenia for a time. In 719, the Byzantine fleet raided the Syrian coast and burned down the port of Laodicea and, in 720 or 721, the Byzantines attacked and sacked Tinnis in Egypt.[46] Leo also restored control over Sicily, where news of the Arab siege of Constantinople and expectations of the city's fall had prompted the local governor to declare an emperor of his own, Basil Onomagoulos. It was during this time, however, that effective Byzantine control over Sardinia and Corsica ceased.[47]

    Besides this, the Byzantines failed to exploit their success in launching attacks of their own against the Arabs. In 720, after a hiatus of two years, Arab raids against Byzantium resumed, although now they were no longer directed at conquest, but rather seeking booty. The Arab attacks would intensify again over the next two decades, until the major Byzantine victory at the Battle of Akroinon in 740. Coupled with military defeats on the other fronts of the overextended Caliphate, and the internal instability which culminated in the Abbasid Revolution, the age of Arab expansion came to an end.[48]


    Here is a video of the Siege and its aftermath... its good and short...

     
  4. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    I have a battle that may not have decided the world but mark the Golden Age of the Georgian's of the Caucasus region of central Asia. Their Golden age lasted until the Mongols arrived. The Great King David IV ruled from 1089AD until death in 1125AD, during his reign he drove the Seljuk Turks out of their lands creating the Kingdom of Georgia. The battle of Didgori in 1121AD...

    Muslim powers became increasingly concerned about the rapid rise of a Christian state in southern Caucasia. In 1121, Sultan Mahmud b. Muhammad declared a holy war on Georgia and rallied a large coalition of Muslim states The size of the Muslim army is still a matter of debate with numbers ranging from fantastic 600,000 men to modern Georgian estimates of 250,000–400,000 men However, 12 August 1121, King David routed the enemy army on the fields of Didgori, achieving what is often considered the greatest military success in Georgian history. The victory at Didgori signaled the emergence of Georgia as a great military power and shifted the regional balance in favor of Georgian cultural and political supremacy.

    Snip...

    The size of the Muslim army is still a matter of debate,
    with numbers ranging from a fantastic 600,000 men (as given by Walter the Chancellor and Matthew of Edessa) to 400,000 (Sempad Sparapet's Chronicle), while estimates of modern Georgian historians vary between 100,000 and 250,000 men. Although the higher numbers are exaggerated, all sources indicate that the Muslims made massive preparations and vastly outnumbered the Georgians.

    On the other side, the Georgians were facing a significantly superior foe in terms of numbers but had the strategic as well as a tactical advantage. The Georgians were well aware of the Muslim preparations and took necessary precautions. In 1118, after successful completion of David IV's military reform, a royal guard (known as Monaspa) of about 5,000 horsemen was formed. The Georgian army of 56,000 men included 500 Alans, about 200 Franks, and 15,000 Kipchaks.

    Snip... the natural features of the land were used and choose the place of battle...

    King David could not allow Ilghazi to unite with the Tbilisi Muslims, so he decided to intercept him on his way there. He used a strategy of surprise and to entice the enemy step-by-step into a trap. He chose a mountainous and wooded area near the Didgori Mountain range, situated between Manglisi and Tbilisi, to attack. On August 11, 1121, King David led his army along the Nichbisi valley from the ancient capital of Mtskheta and divided his troops into two parts, one under his personal command and the other smaller group under his son Demetrius I, hidden in reserve behind the nearby heights with orders to attack the flank at a given signal.

    LINKS:

    Battle of Didgori - Wikipedia
    David IV of Georgia - Wikipedia
    David IV the builder - SlideShare

    Here is a video...











     

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