Enterprise ...

Discussion in 'Slavery other than national politics' started by 5fish, Jan 20, 2020.

  1. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    We all know the Enterprise as the fame carrier of World War Two or as the famous Star Ship in Star Trek...

    I found this Enterprise:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_(slave_ship)

    The Enterprise was a United States merchant vessel[1] active in the coastwise slave trade in the early 19th century along the Atlantic Coast. Bad weather forced it into Hamilton, Bermuda waters on February 11, 1835 while it carried 78 slaves in addition to other cargo. It became the centre of a minor international incident when the British authorities freed nearly all the slaves. Britain had abolished slavery in its Caribbean colonies effective 1834. At that time it advised "foreign nations that any slavers found in Bermuda [and the Bahamas] waters would be subject to arrest and seizure. Their cargoes were liable to forfeiture" without compensation.[2]

    The freeing of the slaves from Enterprise was one of several similar incidents from 1830 to 1842: officials in Bermuda and the Bahamas freed a total of nearly 450 slaves from United States ships in the domestic trade, after the ships had been wrecked in their waters or entered their ports for other reasons. United States owners kept pressing the government for claims for their losses. In the 1853 Treaty of Claims, the US and Britain agreed to settle a variety of claims dating to 1814, including those for slaves freed after 1834. This was ultimately settled by arbitration in 1855, establishing a payment of $270,700 against the US Government, due British subjects, and $329,000 against the British Government, due to American citizens. Ultimately some insurance companies were paid for the loss of property of the slaves.

    Leads into other stories about other ships that wreak or came ashore in United Kingdom waters...

    The Hermosa was a schooner whose 1840 grounding in the Bahamas led to a controversy between the US and Britain over the 38 slaves who had been on board the ship.

    There was another slave revolt on another ship...

    The Creole case was the result of an American slave revolt in November 1841 on board the Creole, a ship involved in the United States coastwise slave trade. As 128 slaves gained freedom after the Africans ordered the ship sailed to Nassau, it has been termed the "most successful slave revolt in US history".[1] Two persons died as a result of the revolt, a black slave and a white slave trader.

    There is the famous case of
    The Amistad but it was not a U S ship...
     
    Last edited: Jan 20, 2020
  2. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    that's completely new to me. i bet jean-luc doesn't have her in his enterprise collection [​IMG]



    ... please add the original wiki-link to your post
     
  3. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    One of you, Trekkie's that are a member of a Star Trek forum should bring it up... in the forum and see if anyone knew about this ship called Enterprise and see why the TV show left this history out.

    I put the link in...
     
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  4. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    good idea - did it [​IMG]
     
  5. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Here may explain there have been 8 warships the question do you count a commercial ship as one...

    Eight ships used in the service of the United States or of the Colonial Forces of the United States Revolutionary War (six of which were United States Navy ships) have been named Enterprise with a ninth currently under construction:[1]

    Here is a link to the list of warships...

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ships_of_the_United_States_Navy_named_Enterprise
     
  6. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    I found a file on the court cases Enterprise vs Great Britain and others... trying to find out what kind of ship she was... I found this: Enterprise, Amer. Slaver Schr. (Robinson), p544

    https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/slavery-records-civil.html

    The coastwise slave trade existed along the eastern coastal areas of the United States in the antebellum years prior to 1861. Shiploads and boatloads of slaves in the domestic trade were transported from place to place on the waterways. Hundreds of vessels of various sizes and capacities were used to transport the slaves, generally from markets of the Upper South, where there was a surplus of slaves, to the Deep South, where the development of new cotton plantations created high demand for labor.

    International tensions developed when ships were forced by weather or incident into ports in Bermuda and the British West Indies, as the British freed the slaves as part of the banned trade on the high seas, even before its abolition of slavery in its territories in 1834. There were several cases: Comet (1830), Encomium (1833), Enterprise (1835), Hermosa (1840) and, most notably, the Creole case of 1841, the result of a ship slave revolt that forced the vessel into Nassau, Bahamas. British officials freed the 128 of 135 slaves who chose to stay in the Bahamas.


    https://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_xxix/26-53.pdf

    Here a snippet...

    Opinion of Mr. Upham, United States Commissioner, in the case of the Enterprise In March, 1840, resolutions were submitted to the United States Senate relative to this claim, by Mr. Calhoun, which were adopted by that body, and which briefly set forth the principles on which the claim is based. These principles are: That a vessel on the high seas, in time of peace, engaged in a lawful voyage, is, according to the law of nations, under the exclusive jurisdiction of the state to which she belongs; and that, if such vessel is forced, by stress of weather or other unavoidable circumstance, into the port of a friendly power, her country, in such case, loses none of the rights appertaining to her on the high seas, either over the vessel or the personal relations of those on board. It was contended that the Enterprise came within these principles, and that the seizure and liberation of the negroes on board of her, by the authorities of Bermuda, was a violation of these principles and of the law of nations. . . . I shall endeavor to ascertain what this law is. Before proceeding, however, to give my views fully on this subject, I shall advert briefly to the various points taken in the argument addressed to us by the learned counsel for the British Government. These points are: 1. “That laws have no force, in themselves, beyond the territory of the country by which they are made.” My reply is that this is usually the case; but it is subject to the important addition that the laws of a country are uniformly in force, beyond the limits of its territory, over its vessels on the high seas, and continue in force in various respects within foreign ports, as we shall hereafter show. 2. It is contended “that by the comity of nations the laws of one country are, in some cases, allowed by another to have operation within its territory; but, when it is so permitted, the foreign law has its authority in the other country from the sanction given to it there and not from its original institution.” 3. “That every nation is the sole judge of the extent and the occasions on which it will permit such operation, and it is not bound to give such permission where the foreign law is contrary to its interests or its moral sentiments.” As to these points, I concede that there are many laws of a foreign country, in reference to its own citizens or their obligations, that another nation may enforce or not, where the citizens of such a country voluntarily come within its borders in order to place themselves under its jurisdiction. But there are cases where persons are forced by the disasters of the sea upon a foreign coast, where, as I contend, a nation has fundamental and essential rights within the ordinary local limits of another country, of which it can not be deprived, and that are operative and binding by a sanction that is wholly above and beyond the mere assent of any such state or community. 30 United States/great britain Such rights are defined by jurists as the absolute international rights of states. I might also add, it is not now a question whether the doctrines of international law shall prevail either in England or America. “International law,” says Blackstone, “has been adopted in its full extent by the common law of England; and whenever any question arises which is properly the subject of its jurisdiction, it is held to be a part of the law of the land.” (Black. Com. vol. 4, p. 67.) International law is also recognized by the Constitution of the United States, and it is made the duty of Congress to punish offenses against it. 4. It is contended “that England does not admit within its territory the application of any foreign laws establishing slavery, having abolished the status of slavery throughout its dominions.” This position is open to the exception taken to the second and third propositions, and is subject to the same reply. 5. It is contended “that the condition of apprenticeship, as permitted to remain in the West India Islands by the act of 3 and 4 Wm. IV. ch. 73, is no exception to the abolition of slavery throughout the British dominions;” because, it is said, the system is entirely different from slavery in point of fact, and because, however near a resemblance it may bear to it, it could afford no justification for an English court to hold that another sort of slavery was valid. Our reply to this is, that slavery does not necessarily depend on the length of time the bondage exists, but on its character. The apprenticeship system continued, as to a portion of those to whom it was applicable, for twenty-one years; and few persons can calculate on a lease of life for a longer time. Apprentices also were liable to be bought and sold or attached for debt. The system therefore had all the worst characteristics of slavery. Further, the act abolishing slavery acknowledged the legality and validity of slavery as an institution, as it rendered compensation for the liberation of slaves according to their respective valuations, and also gave to the owners of slaves the benefit of a term of intermediate service. If it was not considered right to liberate British slaves except on these conditions, how can it be right to compel the liberation of American slaves, casually thrown within the country, when no such compensation has been made or term of service secured to their owners? This forced liberation of the slaves of another government without compensation is placed on the ground of the universal “abolition of slavery throughout the British dominions.” Such abolition, however, was not effected by this act, as the sixty-fourth section provides “that nothing in the act contained doth or shall extend to any of the territories in the possession of the East India Company, or to the Island of Ceylon, or to the Island of St. Helena.” It was merely enjoined on the East India Company by Parliament at the same case of the enterprise 31 session “that they should forthwith take into consideration the means of mitigating slavery in their possessions, and of extinguishing it as soon as it should be practicable and safe,” and slavery was not abolished in those provinces for some years subsequent to that period. It is also said “that the provincial government of Bermuda, after the passage of the general act abolishing slavery, abolished the apprenticeship system prior to the liberation of the slaves on board the Enterprise,” but such abolition was not made till, under the general law, they had received compensation for their slaves. 6. “The principle on which the right of everyman to personal liberty within British territory is attached is that some law must be appealed to to justify the restraint of liberty; and that neither the apprentice law nor any other law can be appealed to to justify the restraint of these negroes.” To this we reply that the law of the country from which the vessel comes, as sustained and enforced by the law of nations, can as well be appealed to on this subject as on any other. It is expressly admitted in the argument that the law of nations may be appealed to, as exempting property, other than slaves, in cases of shipwreck and disaster, and exempting vessels of war from ordinary municipal jurisdiction; and this is done by giving to the law of nations, in such case, the force and effect of municipal law, which is all that is asked to be done in this case. 7. It is contended “that slavery is not a relation which the British Government, by the comity of nations, is bound to respect.” But such is not the doctrine of the British courts. They hold themselves bound, by the comity of nations, to respect both slavery and the slave trade; and they uphold and sustain it in their decisions, where the rights of other nations are concerned.
     
    Last edited: Jan 20, 2020
  7. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    that space shuddle certainly wasn't a warship
     
  8. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    I found them all ... all those vessels named Enterprise... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Enterprise

    Other American ships[edit]
    American aircraft and spacecraft[edit]
    • Enterprise (balloon), a balloon used by the Union Army during the American Civil War
    • Space Shuttle Enterprise (OV-101), the first orbiter built for NASA's Space Shuttle system
    • IXS Enterprise, a NASA conceptual design for an interstellar ship, c. 2013
    • VSS Enterprise (2009–2014), a Virgin Galactic commercial spaceplane that broke apart during a test flight
    Star Trek fictional spacecraft[edit]
    raining facility[edit]
     
  9. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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  10. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    The thing one finds in the Islands...

    https://www.gotobermuda.com/article/discover-the-african-diaspora-heritage-trail

    BARR’S BAY PARK

    This scenic spot right off of Front Street has deep ties to Bermuda’s African heritage. In 1835, an American schooner named the Enterprise landed here, sent off course by a storm. Onboard were 78 enslaved men, women and children. Since slavery had been illegal in Bermuda since Emancipation a year earlier, members of a “Friendly Society” in Bermuda took the ship’s captain to court and soon the enslaved on board were given a choice: return to the United States or stay on in Bermuda and be free. Almost all opted for the latter – and their descendants still live here today. "We Arrive," a striking statue, graces the park to commemorate this event in our history.

    [​IMG]
     
  11. Wehrkraftzersetzer

    Wehrkraftzersetzer Hüter des Reinheitsgebotes

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    would be a wonderful thing to have in a mirror episode
     
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  12. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Or maybe a Q type episode where Q transports some crew members back to the slave ship Enterprise so show mans' injustice to man... or transport the crew through a series of historic Enterprises to show some lesson...
     
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  13. O' Be Joyful

    O' Be Joyful Well-Known Member

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    That kinda happened.

     
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  14. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    This was the first time they met Q...
     
  15. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    it was the first time anybody met them
     
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  16. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Q's lessons

     
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  17. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    i hated Q after farpoint station. later i learned to love him - now i'm rather exited whenever i spot john de lancie
     
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  18. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    I looked up this steamboat and you know its spirit is in many ways what our fictional Enterprise has... The first steamboat was 1807 and the Enterprise was actually built in 1814... it was a pioneer... from wiki

    The Enterprise, or Enterprize, with an engine and power train designed and built by Daniel French, was launched before June 1814 at Brownsville for her owners: the shareholders of the Monongahela and Ohio Steam Boat Company.[4][5] The Enterprise, under the command of Israel Gregg, was first used to transport passengers and cargo to ports between Brownsville and Louisville, Kentucky.[6][7] From June to December she completed two 600-mile (970 km) voyages from Louisville to Pittsburgh that were performed against strong river currents.[8] With these voyages the Enterprise demonstrated for the first time that steamboat commerce was practical on the Ohio River.

    On December 2, General Andrew Jackson had marched from Mobile, Alabama to New Orleans with orders to oppose an imminent military invasion by an overwhelming British force.[9][10] Jackson had been making frequent requests for military supplies, especially small firearms and ammunition, that were in short supply.[11] To this end, the shareholders made the decision to send the Enterprise.[8][12][13] Command was transferred to Henry Miller Shreve, a Brownsville resident and experienced keelboat captain, who had firsthand knowledge of the hazards to navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.[14] On December 21, 1814, the Enterprise departed Pittsburgh bound for New Orleans with a cargo of "Cannon-balls, Gun-Carriages, Smith's Tools, Boxes of Harness, &c".[12][15][16] On December 28, the Enterprise passed the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville, delivering the cargo of military supplies at the port of New Orleans on January 9, 1815.[13][17][18]


    Snip... help at the Battle of New Orleans...

    Despite the military supplies delivered by the Enterprise, Jackson's forces were still in dire need, particularly for small firearms, gunpowder and shot.[22] Responding to reports that several boats laden with military supplies were near Natchez, Jackson sent the Enterprise.[23] The boats were located and the Enterprise took them in tow, delivering them to New Orleans.

    Then the Enterprise made another voyage to Natchez and returned to the port of New Orleans by February 12, 1815 when she was entered for the first time in the New Orleans Wharf Register as "Steam Boat (le petite) Captne Shrive".[24]

    Then the Enterprise steamed up the Red River to Alexandria with 250 troops in tow and returned to New Orleans.[25]
    [26]

    The Enterprise demonstrated for the first time that steamboat commerce was practical on the Mississippi River and its tributaries. The Enterprise trial eliminated the ability of the monopolists to restrict competition. Furthermore, the Enterprise was relatively inexpensive to build, costing $9,000 compared to $38,000 for the New Orleans.[64][65] These facts opened the way for the subsequent rapid growth of steamboat commerce on America's western rivers.
     
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  19. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Some more on the Steamboat E... One of the captains... before Kirk and Picard...

    Link:https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/whomade/shreve_hi.html

    [​IMG]

    Inspired by Oliver Evans, Shreve tried to build a steamboat using a high-pressure engine, which was cheaper, smaller, and lighter than Fulton's low-pressure steam engine -- important considerations for shallow Western rivers.

    Henry Miller Shreve

    River Rights and Navigation

    This frontiersman helped people travel and trade in the nation's interior by opening up the only viable highways -- American rivers.

    Frontier Man
    Henry Miller Shreve was instrumental in the realm of early American waterway navigation. Born in 1785 in New Jersey, Shreve grew up in the Ohio River valley and helped to support his family by trading beaver pelts on the river near his homestead. He became an expert navigator and an adventurous traveler. 1807 marked the year of Robert Fulton's successful steamboat experiment. Within a few years, Shreve had designed his own, the Enterprise.

    Monopoly Breaker
    Seeking his own business opportunities, Shreve legally challenged Fulton's monopoly of the Mississippi River steamboat trade. The monopoly was broken in 1817, five years after the Enterprise had helped win the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. Although the public was wary of volatile steam engines, trade increased on the nation's waterways, slashing cargo costs and communication times between settlements. In 1826, Shreve was appointed superintendent of western river improvements, a post he would hold until 1841.

    Clearing Snags
    One of the problems Shreve faced was that tens of thousands of "snags" -- huge tree limbs and trunks in the rivers -- caused frequent accidents. Shreve designed a steamboat, the Heliopolis, that had a jaw-like device on its bow to pick up and remove snags to a sawmill on the boat's deck. Snag boat operations, funded by the government, made navigation of the nation's rivers safer and much more economical. Furthermore, some debris-choked waterways that were blocking the progress of westward expansion, such as the Red River, became navigable because of the snag boat. A town on the that river, Shreveport, would be named after Shreve, and become one of Louisiana's largest cities. Shreve died in 1854.

    From Wiki...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Miller_Shreve

    Clearing the Great Raft[edit]
    The American rivers were still difficult to navigate, however, because of the presence of dead wood called snags, sawyers, or log jams. Shreve was appointed Superintendent of Western River Improvements in 1826 and charged with finding a solution to this problem. He had been working on a design for a "snagboat" since 1821, and he finally had it built in 1837. This craft, the Heliopolis, had a steam-powered windlass used to pull large concentrations of dead wood from the water. As a result of the success of his design, Shreve was ordered in 1832 by Secretary of War Lewis Cass to clear the Great Raft, 150 miles (240 km) of dead wood on the Red River. Shreve successfully removed the Raft by 1839. The area of the Red River where the Raft was most concentrated is today his namesake city of Shreveport. Shreve helped to establish Shreveport via the Shreve Town Company.

    In 1841, Shreve was relieved of his superintendent's duties by U.S. President John Tyler. He then retired to his farm near St. Louis.

    The Enterprise[edit]
    A group of Brownsville investors had formed a stock company, the Monongahela and Ohio Steam Boat Company, to conduct steamboat commerce on the Western rivers.[6] To this end, the company commissioned a new steamboat to be constructed at Brownsville. During the winter and spring of 1814, while Shreve was on the voyage to New Orleans, the Enterprise, with an engine and power train designed and built by Daniel French, was constructed. Between June and December 1814, the Enterprise, under the command of Israel Gregg, made two successful voyages transporting passengers and cargo to ports between Brownsville and Louisville, Kentucky.[7] By December, the company had decided to send the Enterprise to New Orleans with a cargo of munitions for General Andrew Jackson's troops to defend the city against an invasion by British forces.[8] Command of the Enterprise was transferred to Henry Shreve because of his firsthand knowledge of the hazards to navigation of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The Enterprise departed Pittsburgh on December 21, 1814 with the munitions.[9] The Enterprise passed the Falls at Louisville on December 28, 1814.[10] The Enterprise arrived at New Orleans on January 9, 1815.[11]

    After the American victory at the Battle of New Orleans, a lawsuit was brought by the heirs of Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston against Shreve and the owners of the Enterprise for violating the formers' monopoly against any unauthorized navigation of Louisiana waters by steamboat.[12] Soon after being released from jail, Shreve commanded the Enterprise from New Orleans to Louisville, the first time a northbound steamboat was able to reach that city.[13][14] Then he navigated the Enterprise to Pittsburgh and finally to her homeport of Brownsville.[15] This long and difficult voyage by the Enterprise, more than 2,200 miles (3,500 km) against the currents of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, demonstrated the ability of steamboats to navigate the western rivers.
     
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