Europe's First Subs...

Discussion in 'Other Military' started by 5fish, Jan 29, 2020.

  1. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    We in the Civil War universe like to brag about the Hunley as the first sub but the European powers had their first subs too...

    German's were out the gate first... it is in a museum.
    Brandtaucher - Wikipedia
    Brandtaucher (German for Fire-diver) was a submersible designed by the Bavarian inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer and built by Schweffel & Howaldt in Kiel for Schleswig-Holstein's Flotilla (part of the Reichsflotte) in 1850. The Brandtaucher is the oldest surviving submarine in the world, pending any future discoveries.[

    In January 1850 Bauer, a cavalryman during the German-Danish War, designed Brandtaucher as a way to end the Danish naval blockade of Germany. Bauer's early sketch attracted the attention of the Minister of Marine, who allowed him to construct a 70 × 18 × 29 cm (27.6 × 7.1 × 11.4 in) model. The model was demonstrated in Kiel harbour in front of naval dignitaries. Its satisfactory performance led to the construction of a full-scale model, which was funded by contributions from army personnel and local civilians. Due to the inadequate funding, the scale of the boat had to be downgraded and the design altered and simplified; resulting in a reduced diving depth from 30 m to 9.5 m. This redesign included eliminating the use of enclosed ballast tanks to contain the water being taken into and expelled from the submarine. Instead, the water was allowed to pool inside the bottom of the hull, below the main floor, and was able to move relatively unobstructed within this area when the ship changed orientation. The resulting instability was probably a significant contributing factor to the loss of the vessel.

    As built, Brandtaucher was 8.07 m long and 2.02 m at maximum beam, with a draught of 2.63 m. It was propelled by a crew of three turning large tread wheels connected to a propeller. The boat could reach a speed of three knots, but this could not be maintained for long periods of time.

    On 1 February 1851, Brandtaucher sank after a diving accident during acceptance trials in Kiel Harbour.[2] The submarine experienced equipment failure, and sank to the bottom of a 60-foot hole at the bottom of Kiel Harbour. Bauer escaped by letting in water, thus increasing the air pressure, which allowed Bauer and his two companions to open the hatch and swim to the surface. This was the first submarine escape to be witnessed and reported.[2]

    In 1887 the wreck was discovered, and it was raised on 5 July 1887. Brandtaucher was first placed on display at the Naval Academy in Kiel and then in 1906 it was moved to the Museum für Meereskunde in Berlin. From 1963 to 1965 it was restored in the DDR at Rostock, and placed on display at the Nationale Volksarmee Museum in Potsdam. The boat can now be viewed at the Militärhistorisches Museum der Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces Museum of Military History), in Dresden.

     
  2. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    The French came out the gate next...

    Plongeur (French for "Diver") was a French submarine launched on 16 April 1863. She was the first submarine in the world to be propelled by mechanical (rather than human) power.
    Captain Siméon Bourgeois, who made the plans, and naval constructor Charles Brun began working on the design in 1859 at Rochefort.

    Snip... link: https://www.naval-encyclopedia.com/ww1/france/submarines

    If the Plongeur started an early craze about submarines, inspiring Jules Vernes‘s famous own “Nautilus” and twenty leagues under the seas (1870), the Navy remained skeptical and by the early 1880 concentrated on torpedo boats instead. The electrically-powered Gymnôte became a breakthough and relaunched the interest for undersea warfare. But for the engineers of the time, a submarine was a complex machine destined to exceptional undersea performances, and many engineers started their own design in this philosophy. It would take time after Laubeuf’s Narval before the Navy settled up on a single design.

    From 1859 to 1863, engineer and Captain Siméon Bourgeois and Charles Brun, the builder, launched the Plongeur (“plunger”). The race was on, to devise the first practical submerged attack ship.

    The competition was fierce however. In Spain already in 1859, Narcis Monturiol created the Ictineo, first air-independent and combustion-engine-driven submarine. And even before in 1850, for the small state flotilla of Schleswig-Holstein, Bavarian inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer created the Brandtaucher. It was, however, man-powered with three turning large tread wheels connected to a propeller.

    “The Plunger” was started when the Conseil des Travaux in 1859 ordered naval engineers to submit plans for a submarine and selected Brun and Bourgeois concept. Le Plongeur was, by all accounts, an amazing contraption, with an hydrodynamically sound hull shape, reminiscent of early submerged ram concepts, and using compressed air which allowed four knots. Compressed air indeed powered a conventional reciprocating engine.

    This air was stored into 23 tanks under 12.5 bar (1.25 MPa, 180 psi) pressure. But these tanks took up 153 m³/5,403 ft³, therefore obliged to enlarge the submarine itself, bringing its total to 381 t (420 tons) in displacement submerged, making it the largest submarine ever at that time, for decades. The final engine power was just 60 kW (80 hp), which ws just enough for a laughable 5 nmi (9 km), at 4 kn (7.2 km/h).

    Compressed air being also used for emptying the ballast tanks, 53 m³ (1,872 ft³) wide, made likely a single dive be performed at each sortie. Ballast was 212 t (234 tons). The crew was 12. The deck counted a small lifeboat for exchanged at sea and to resupply the boat in air, she was followed by a support ship, the Cachalot.

    The armament comprised both a traditiona, reinforced ram, and an electrically-fired spar torpedo, maintaining a safe distance before detonation. However the design was plagued by the decision of Admiral Bourgeois to ban the use of torpedoes in the Navy and the design did not evolved further.

    Built at Rochefort, she made her debuts at the Charente river, then La Rochelle, La Pallice, but during these trials it was established she suffered from stability problems and could not dive further than ten meters. In 1867, Le Plongeur was disarmed but she was showcased at the Paris international exhibition. But she resumed tests and was finally discarded in 2 February 1872. She was later converted as a supply ship, an automotive water tanker in Rochefort harbour. She was rebuilt and received a new engine, and survived until 1927, was transferred to Toulon, and was eventually decommissioned in 25 December 1935.
     
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  3. rittmeister

    rittmeister trekkie in residence Staff Member Administrator

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    the german word for surf is brandung - just saying [​IMG] but then it's wiki - it was also called eisener seehund (iron seal)
     
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  4. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    The English come in...


    Snip... https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?4830

    Resurgam; world's first mechanically propelled submarine; by Reverend George William Garrett; built in 1879 by Cochran & Co in Birkenhead; Powered by a closed system steam engine patented by Eugene Lamm in 1872; 45x10 ft; 30 tons; 3 crew. The Resurgam was to make her way under her own steam from Birkenhead to Portsmouth for a demonstration to the Royal Navy when technical problems forced the crew to dock for repairs. Once repaired, Resurgam set sail at night in a gale, towed by a steam yacht. The yacht developed engine trouble so the crew of the Resurgam transferred to the towing vessel to deal with the mechanical problems. The conning tower hatch on the now unmanned submarine could not be closed from the outside so the Resurgam took on water. The towrope broke under the additional strain and on February 25th 1880 the Resurgam was lost somewhere off Rhyl. Read more at wrecksite: https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?4830

    Snip... https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016...-many-one-worlds-earliest-powered-submarines/

    Resurgam (meaning “I shall rise again” in Latin) is the name given to two early Victorian submarines designed and built in Britain by a Manchester clergyman called Reverend George William Garrett (1852-1902) as a weapon to penetrate the chain netting placed around ship’s hulls to defend against attack by torpedo vessels.

    The first Resurgam (Resurgam I) was built in 1878 and it was a 14 ft (5 m), hand powered, one-man vessel nicknamed “the curate’s egg” due to its shape. Reverend Garrett was convinced he could sell the designs to the Royal Navy, and make his fortune in the process. However, its small size and one-man crew meant it would have been ineffective as a weapon.

    This was followed by a second (and more famous) Resurgam II in 1879, a 45 ft (13 m) long vessel, 10 feet (3.0 m) in diameter, built by Cochran & Co in Birkenhead. After a successful trial off Wallasey, it set off for a demonstration to the Royal Navy in Portsmouth in 1880. Unfortunately, whilst being towed by the steamship Elphin, Garnett’s invention began to take on water until the tow-rope broke under the added weight, and the Resurgam sank off Rhyl on 25 February 1880.


    Snip... The Sub was found...

    The submarine was rediscovered late in 1995 when she was caught in the nets of a Colwyn Bay trawlerman, Dennis Hunt. A local diver, Keith Hurley, freed the snagged nets and realised that they had found the Resurgam. The Resurgam was designated protected wreck no 42 on 6th July 1996, the site covering an area 300m radius of position 53° 23.78' N., 03° 33.18' W. A full size replica of the Resurgam can be seen at Woodside ferry terminal, Birkenhead. Read more at wrecksite: https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?4830

    Snip...http://www.3hconsulting.com/sites/SitesResurgam.html

    For many years the exact location of Resurgam was a mystery. The submarine was rediscovered late in 1995 when she was caught in the nets of a Colwyn Bay trawlerman, Dennis Hunt. An experienced wreck diver, Keith Hurley, freed the snagged nets and realized that they had found the Resurgam.

     
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  5. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    Here is Spain's first Sub... it was the first functional sub.... 50 dives... this sub was not designed for war...

    Ictíneo I - Wikipedia


    Ictíneo I
    was a pioneering submarine constructed in Barcelona, Spain in 1858–1859 by engineer Narcís Monturiol.

    While living in Cadaqués, Monturiol witnessed the death of a coral harvester, which inspired him with the idea of a ship that could sail underwater and allow coral divers to work in safety. He kept his ideas to himself for over 12 years, concerned that he might be ridiculed and also because he did not have the funds to build such a vessel. A friend convinced him that his idea must be brought to life, and that sufficient funds could be found from friends and the general public.

    While living in Cadaqués, Monturiol witnessed the death of a coral harvester, which inspired him with the idea of a ship that could sail underwater and allow coral divers to work in safety. He kept his ideas to himself for over 12 years, concerned that he might be ridiculed and also because he did not have the funds to build such a vessel. A friend convinced him that his idea must be brought to life, and that sufficient funds could be found from friends and the general public.

    Monturiol had already named his vessel Ictíneo, from the ancient Greek ἰχθύς - ikhtys (fish) and naus (boat). As he put it, the Ictíneo’s "form is that of a fish, and like a fish it has its motor in the tail, fins to control its direction, and swimming bladders and ballast to maintain an equilibrium with the water from the moment it submerges".

    In September 1857 he returned to Barcelona, where he organized the first commercial society in Spain dedicated to submarine navigation, Monturiol, Font, Altadill y Cia. with a capital of 10,000 pesetas. In 1858 he presented his project in a scientific thesis titled "El Ictíneo o barco-pez", (The Ictíneo or fish-ship).

    On 28 June 1859, Monturiol was ready for the Ictíneo's first voyage and the submarine was launched into Barcelona harbour. Unfortunately, she hit some underwater pilings, which Monturiol estimated would exhaust his funds to properly repair. He performed some hasty repairs on the damaged portholes, exterior hull, and ballast tanks, and limited his diving depth to 20 metres (66 ft).

    During the summer of 1859 Monturiol performed more than 20 test dives in the Ictíneo, with his business partner and shipbuilder as crew. He gradually increased the depth he dived to until he reached his 20 metres (66 ft) limit and learned that the crew could remain dived for about 2 hours using only the oxygen sealed inside the pressure hull, and that their endurance could be doubled using compressed oxygen and his carbon dioxide scrubber. The Ictíneo turned out to possess good handling, but its top speed was disappointing, powered as it was by human muscle power.

    Ictíneo I was eventually destroyed in January 1862 after some 50 dives, when a cargo vessel ran into it while it was berthed. It was succeeded by the much improved Ictíneo II.

    A modern replica of the Ictíneo I stands in the garden entrance to the Marine Museum in Barcelona.

    Link to another site with lots of photos... https://www.thevintagenews.com/2016...many-worlds-first-fully-functional-submarine/

    [​IMG]
     
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  6. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

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    There was Ictineo II ... He tried to sell it to America... its seems the Spanish man figure it all out...
    Ictíneo II - Wikipedia
    Ictíneo II was a pioneering submarine launched in 1864 by the Spanish engineer Narcís Monturiol and was the first air independent and combustion powered submarine and was the first submarine to overcome the basic problems of machine powered underwater navigation.

    The Ictíneo II was originally intended as an improved version of the handpowered Ictíneo I. The Spanish Navy pledged support to Monturiol but did not actually supply it, so he had to raise funds himself, writing a letter to the nation to encourage a popular subscription which raised 300,000 pesetas from citizens of Spain and Cuba and was used to form the company La Navegación Submarina to develop the Ictíneo II.

    The Ictíneo II made her maiden voyage under human power on 20 May 1865, submerging to 30 metres (98 ft). A few months later, Monturiol attempted to attract government funding by installing a cannon that could be aimed and fired from inside the submarine. After reading about the American Civil War and the attempts at submarine construction such as the CSS Hunley, the financially desperate Monturiol wrote to the US Secretary of the Navy; however, the Civil War had ended by the time the Secretary responded.

    Dissatisfied with the limitations placed on him by human propulsion, Monturiol realized that the only option was steam power, but contemporary steam engines required a fire which was not an option for a submarine. To this end he invented the air independent engine.

    Monturiol envisaged a new vessel, custom built to house his new engine, which would be entirely built of metal with the engine housed in its own separate compartment. However, due to the state of his finances, construction of a new vessel was out of the question, and instead he managed to assemble enough funds to fit the engine into the Ictíneo II.

    On 22 October 1867 the Ictíneo II made its first surface journey under steam power, averaging 3.5 knots (4.0 mph) with a top speed of 4.5 knots (5.2 mph). Two months later, on 14 December, Monturiol submerged the vessel and ran his chemical engine, but without attempting to travel anywhere.

    On 23 December, La Navegación Submarina went bankrupt, having completely exhausted its funds. Monturiol had spent 100,000 Duros — which could have purchased several frigates, or 160 kilograms (350 lb) of gold[1] — and could attract no more investment. The chief creditor called in his debt, and Monturiol was forced to surrender the Ictíneo II, which was his sole asset. The creditor subsequently sold it on to a businessman, and the authorities, who taxed all ships, issued its new owner with a tax bill. Rather than pay, he dismantled the entire submarine and sold it for scrap. The ship's surface motor was removed to a textile factory; viewports ended up as bathroom windows.[2]

    [​IMG]
     

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