Rise of Iron Ships...

Discussion in 'Other Military' started by 5fish, Dec 2, 2019.

  1. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
  2. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
    USS New Ironsides, a 4120-ton broadside ironclad, was built at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The last, and largest, of the initial group of three "salt-water" armored warships begun in 1861 in response to meet the needs of the Civil War, she was commissioned in August 1862. Initially fitted out as an armored frigate, she was the first American seagoing ironclad and soon was stripped of her rigging, acquiring a curiously modern appearance as a consequence. Many innovations in the areas of gunnery, protection (armor), and seaworthiness made this ship far ahead of any ship of its time. Originally named USS Ironsides, the name was changed to USS New Ironsides only one month prior to her launching to avoid confusion with the wooden frigate USS Constitution’s nickname “Old Ironsides.” Classified as a frigate, she was intended to be a “blue-water” warship but rarely had her rigging in place during the war. In many ways, she was a better equipped and more useful warship than any of the highly publicized monitors. Within seven months after the contract was signed the New Ironsides was steaming to Charleston. Splendid white oak timbers were used in her construction. There were 120 timbers in it, each 38 feet long, 22 inches wide, and 12 inches thick, all cut within 25 miles of Philadelphia in the middle of winter, and after the contract was signed. No white oak for ship-building may be found there now, but the iron mines and the forges and the furnaces took its place. The New Ironsides had a slightly sloping armor of 4 inches of wrought-iron on her sides, and the armor served her well. The vessel was of 3580 tons displacement, had a speed of 1O knots, was 255 feet long, 56 feet broad, 12 feet deep. USS New Ironsides, a first generation ironclad, was launched two months after the famous battle between USS Monitor and CSS Virginia in 1862, and served with distinction until the end of the Civil War. The innovative turret design of John Ericsson’s USS Monitor influenced American naval construction for decades after its draw with CSS Virginia in Hampton Roads. USS New Ironsides’ much greater ability to deliver and receive punishment with its fourteen 11-inch Dahlgren smoothbores and two 150 pound Parrott rifles may have changed the outcome of this famous battle had she been delivered two months earlier. Although USS New Ironsides was unique and capable, she was the only one of its class; in contrast, “monitor mania” resulted in fifty ships. Following a lengthy fitting-out period, she joined the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in January 1863. For the next year, she operated in support of the blockade of Charleston, South Carolina, and took part in several attacks on the Confederate fortifications defending that city. New Ironsides's heavy broadside battery of eight heavy guns on each side, coupled with her iron protection, made her a uniquely valuable ship for bombardment purposes. She took more hits from enemy guns than any other Federal ship but did not lose a single man to them. hers endurance was unmatched; she maintained uninterrupted blockade duty for sixteen months during the siege of Charleston, South Carolina. The veteran ironclad, probably the most powerful warship of her era, was destroyed by fire in December 1865. On the night of December 15, 1866, while in mothballs after decommissioning at League Island Navy Yard, Philadelphia, New Ironsides burned to the waterline and sank, the victim of an unattended stove.
     
    jgoodguy and O' Be Joyful like this.
  3. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
    Here is the British first... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Warrior_(1860)

    HMS Warrior is a 40-gun steam-powered armoured frigate[Note 1] built for the Royal Navy in 1859–1861. She was the name ship of the Warrior-class ironclads. Warrior and her sister ship HMS Black Prince were the first armour-plated, iron-hulled warships, and were built in response to France's launching in 1859 of the first ocean-going ironclad warship, the wooden-hulled Gloire. Warrior conducted a publicity tour of Great Britain in 1863 and spent her active career with the Channel Squadron. Obsolescent following the 1871 launching of the mastless and more capable HMS Devastation, she was placed in reserve in 1875, and was "paid off" – decommissioned – in 1883.

    She subsequently served as a storeship and depot ship, and in 1904 was assigned to the Royal Navy's torpedo training school. The ship was converted into an oil jetty in 1927 and remained in that role until 1979, at which point she was donated by the Navy to the Maritime Trust for restoration. The restoration process took eight years, during which many of her features and fittings were either restored or recreated. When this was finished she returned to Portsmouth as a museum ship. Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Warrior has been based in Portsmouth since 1987.


    She is still around today as a museum:


    In 1985 a new berth beside Portsmouth Harbour railway station was dredged, and a new jetty constructed in preparation for Warrior's arrival in Portsmouth. The ship left Hartlepool on 12 June 1987 under the command of Captain Collin Allen [76] and was towed 390 miles (630 km) to the Solent in four days. When she entered Portsmouth Harbour she was welcomed by thousands of people lining the town walls and shore, and by over 90 boats and ships.[77][78] She opened as a museum on 27 July.[79] The restored ironclad was renamed HMS Warrior (1860) to avoid confusion with the Northwood Headquarters, commissioned as HMS Warrior in 1963, which was at the time the operational headquarters of the Royal Navy.[61]

    Warrior is part of the National Historic Fleet,[80] and is berthed in the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard complex, which is also the home of Nelson's flagship HMS Victory and the Tudor warship Mary Rose.[81] In 1995 she received over 280,000 visitors, and the whole dockyard receives between 400,000 and 500,000 visitors annually.[82] Warrior continued to be managed by the Warrior Preservation Trust until 2017.[83] In April of that year, the trust was taken over by the National Museum of the Royal Navy and Warrior became part of the museum's fleet.[84] The ship continues to be used as a venue for weddings and functions to generate funds for her maintenance.[85][86] The trust also maintained a collection of material related to the ship and an archive,
    although it is not yet open to the public.[87]

    [​IMG]
     
    O' Be Joyful likes this.
  4. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
    Here is the French one... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_ironclad_Gloire

    As the first ocean-going ironclad, Gloire rendered obsolete traditional unarmoured wooden ships-of-the-line, and all major navies soon began to build ironclads of their own. However Gloire was soon itself rendered obsolete by the launching in 1860 of the British HMS Warrior, the world's first iron-hulled ironclad warsh

    The French ironclad Gloire ("Glory") was the first ocean-going ironclad, launched in 1859. It was developed after the Crimean War[1], in response to new developments of naval gun technology, especially the Paixhans guns and rifled guns, which used explosive shells with increased destructive power against wooden ships, and after the development of the ironclad floating batteries built by the British and French for the bombardment of Russian forts during the Crimean War.

    It was designed by the French naval architect Henri Dupuy de Lôme as a 5,630-ton broadside ironclad with a wooden hull. Its 12 cm-thick (4.7 in) armour plates, backed with 43 cm (17 in) of timber, resisted hits by the experimental shooting of the strongest guns of the time (the French 50-pounder and the British 68-pounder) at full charge, at a distance of 20 metres (65 ft).

    Its maximum speed was 13.1 knots but other reports suggested no more than 11.75 knots had been attained and that 11 knots was the practical maximum.[2]

    As was common for the era, Gloire was constructed with sails as well as a steam-powered screw. The original rigging was a light barquentine rig providing 1,096 sq. m (11,800 sq. ft) of surface area. This was later increased to a full rig providing 2,508 sq. m (27,000 sq. ft) of surface.[3]


    [​IMG]

    Here is another link about "Gloire" more photos too... https://www.militaryfactory.com/ships/detail.asp?ship_id=La-Gloire
     
  5. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
    Image of our New Ironside:

    [​IMG]
     
    O' Be Joyful likes this.
  6. 5fish

    5fish Well-Known Member

    Messages:
    838
    Likes Received:
    783
    I found this on the New Ironside… I got the impression she saw little action I was wrong...

    LinkS: https://weaponsandwarfare.com/2017/04/08/union-and-usn-monitors/

    Aside from riverine/coastal ironclads, the Federals built only two broadside wooden ironclads, New Ironsides and Dunderberg (later Rochambeau, a super-New Ironsides, almost twice the former ironclad’s displacement), both with no particular design innovation. But New Ironsides could claim to be the most fired-upon ironclad during naval operations off Charleston, perhaps the most fired-upon warship of the nineteenth century, as well as the ironclad that, in turn, fired more rounds at the enemy than any other armored warship of the time. The broadside federal ironclad was formidably armed with fourteen 11-inch Dahlgren smoothbores and two 150-pound Parrott rifles, as well as a ram bow. Its standard 4.5-inch armor plate was far superior to the laminated plate of contemporary monitors. Whereas the monitors off Charleston suffered serious damage from Confederate batteries (and semimonitor Keokuk was sunk), New Ironsides could more or less brush off enemy projectiles and was put out of action only temporarily when attacked by a Confederate spar torpedo boat. During its unmatched 16-month tour of duty off Charleston, it proved a strong deterrent to any Confederate ironclad tempted to break the Union’s wooden blockading fleet off that port city, becoming the “guardian of the blockade.” Still, naval historians have tended to ignore New Ironsides and its wartime contributions because of the conservative design.
     
    O' Be Joyful likes this.

Share This Page